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Utilizing Media: A Response to Deepfakes

  Of the ACM (the Association for Computing Machinery), a magazine called Communication of the ACM's edition releases 1 month before its stated release month. In the latest edition, regarding March 2021, of Communications of the ACM , Column Editor, Susan J. Winter wrote Computing Ethics: What To Do About Deepfakes . Regarding Winter’s desire to halt or hinder illegal or unethical deepfakes, a video technology like wearing a full body masking suit, Winter wrote, “Here are three areas where technical experts can make positive contributions to the development of synthetic media technologies: education and media literacy, subject defense, and verification” (Winter, March, 2021). Winter was saying actions such as teaching and having disruptive technology knowledge, researching professionally, and proving concepts are parts of deepfake experts’ calculus. But this much work specializes such that entry level, junior, work will probably be offered to overqualified professionals. Technic

Spectre and Meltdown Explained, and a Proposed Counter Against Them

On January 15, 2018, 2:58 AM PST, Josh Fruhlinger wrote Spectre and Meltdown explained: What they are, how they work, what’s at risk. As threats, regarding these two risks, Spectre and Meltdown, Fruhlinger wrote, “In the first days of 2018, published research revealed that nearly ever computer chip manufactured in the last 20 years contains fundamental security flaws, with specific variations on those flaws being dubbed Spectre and Meltdown” (Fruhlinger, Jan 15, 2018). Fruhlinger was stating this: despite the best known efforts Electrical Engineers and Computer Scientists exercised, computer chip technology dated 1998 AD - 2018 AD has experienced an error, design flaws, that led to known defects, Spectre and Meltdown, and these are potentially great failures. 

Side-channel technology requires high grade technical research, and this can be because Spectre and Meltdown exist, so a layman would not have known it, 22 years ago. According to Josh Fruhlinger, speculative execution and caching, the processes Spectre and Meltdown exploit, are the following: of a chip’s faster work attempt, it tries predicting an answer, and caching is a memory-access speed-increase technique (Fruhlinger, Jan 15, 2018). Thus, this speculation and caching are standard processes. However, Fruhlinger stated this: speculative execution forgoes a computer security paradigm, privilege checking, and the following transpires: speculative execution starts unpermitted data work, and checking the cache’s unpermitted, but stored data, is a computer memory paradigm (Fruhlinger, Jan 15, 2018). Furthermore, Fruhlinger stated Meltdown breaks down standard securities that hardware should have enforced, but it is specific to certain Intel chips; Spectre requires greater target-program-specific skills, but this is almost computer chip ubiquity (Fruhlinger, Jan 15, 2018). Since security and memory paradigms are targeted, these paradigms require shifts: to termination, privilege-based security shall require terminating PC instances, and I regard stored data the same. On new security and memory paradigms: by AI (Artificial Intelligence) predicting feature loads, temporary computer use shall be supplemented. 

To a temporary PC instance, users shall input simple information. Then, for the use-case, the AI shall predict all the work a user requires. Over time, this computer model shall scale to multiple windows and window tabs. After this computer architecture priority change, I doubt we, reader and I, shall ever see Spectre or Meltdown, again. On consequentialism, a Bible story contains failure’s finality: this can be recognized.

In the first book of Moses, called Genesis, here is a passage regarding the legendary tower, the Tower of Babel, and what the literature states to be accurate history. Moses wrote:

Now the whole world had one language and a common speech. As people moved eastward, they found a plain in Shinar and settled there. They said to each other, “Come, let’s make bricks and bake them thoroughly.” They used brick instead of stone, and tar for mortar. Then they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city, with a tower that reaches to the heavens, so that we may make a name for ourselves; otherwise we will be scattered over the face of the whole earth.” But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower the people were building. The LORD said, “If as one people speaking the same language they have begun to do this, then nothing they plan to do will be impossible for them. Come, let us go down and confuse their language so they will not understand each other.” So the LORD scattered them from there over all the earth, and they stopped building the city. That is why it was called Babel—because there the LORD confused the language of the whole world. From there the LORD scattered them over the face of the whole earth. (NIV, Genesis 11:1-9)

Moses was stating this: although attempting this feat showed humanity’s collaborative brilliance, commanding and controlling a civilization cultivation requires division and isolation because no impossibilities includes developing uncontrollable urges. Like the Tower of Babel, almost every 1998-2018 computer chip made contains these pseudo-uncontrollable urges. In addition, a digital monument exists called the Library of Babel: for a user’s new instance, this or something like it might be the AI’s information construction pool (Basile). For more information regarding the Library of Babel, review my reference. However, I admit that the Library of Babel might be worse than navigating Benoit Mandelbrot’s fractals.

When solving software errors, bugs can stop, but some solutions are unknown. To every field IT (Information Technology) affects, this is a possible threat that is, each field is affected. The worst-case response scenario is reformatting the OS per use, and against benchmark standards, measuring the time discrepancies per instance. Then, loading data to and from the main memory, and to and from the secondary memory. Further, using AI (Artificial Intelligence), retrieving specific user data from unrecorded states might be possible: this shall require faster RAM and secondary storage, but by convention, computers are almost having maximum performance, already. Therefore, by convention, this might be a last resort. A more short term solution is offering low budget computers incapable of speculative execution and caching, and turning to data conservation and refinement efforts because this is a catastrophe.

As version control systems offer software reverting, CPU data reversion seems this: that it is a mission critical component. However, ignoring the cache data is a judgment error because the CPU has already collected important data; but against a priority basis, it is not removed. Of computer information technology, this made 20 years defective, and they shall be called failures. Against a Spectre measure, the only necessity is accessing the cache, and this can contain precious user credentials: in demand is further research, here. I believe this: a downloadable and misdirecting malware, a trojan, can hide this data. Further, the browser cache is accessible, but I figure this: it shall require a non-SSL protected Web site, and it might require remote access, but that is an administrator privilege. 

Against kernel-level access, Google Chrome does a good job, but the kernel-accessing Mozilla Firefox has this notorious reputation: in C++, Firefox is written, and C++ has kernel-accessing commands. On kernel access, these commands are Firefox plugin standardizations, so Firefox plugins are not all trustworthy. Thus, all Firefox software might cause browser cache access, and this can be catastrophic. However,  Microsoft’s C# development is a JIT (Just in-time) compiled language, so it keeps the speed compiled programs offer, but offers security because I believe this: brute force attacks cannot keep pace. On edX.org, Microsoft offered me a C# programming course, and I completed this C# programming course. The most secure solution shall be minimizing compatible kernel-accessing programming languages, and replacing them this way: with non-compile time programming languages. But check a full stack solution: compile the kernel and OS, and for Internet utilization, access the World Wide Web using interpretive languages like JavaScript. Tensorflow.JS is one such AI solution, and I learned it, last year.

References

Basile, Jonathan. Library of Babel. Jonathan. Accessed November 21, 2020. https://libraryofbabel.info/.

Fruhlinger, Josh. “Spectre and Meltdown Explained: What They Are, How They Work, What's at Risk.” CSO Online. CSO, January 15, 2018. https://www.csoonline.com/article/3247868/spectre-and-meltdown-explained-what-they-are-how-they-work-whats-at-risk.html.

 

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